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EdhaCare - Bone Marrow Transplantation In India


Bone Marrow Transplant - Overview

A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that is performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy to help your body make enough platelets, white blood cells, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anaemia.

Blood stem cells are transplanted into the bone marrow, where they continue to create new blood cells and support the creation of new marrow.

Bone Marrow Transplant - Symptoms

When a person's marrow isn't healthy enough to function properly, bone marrow transplants are performed.

This could occur as a result of long-term infections, diseases, or cancer treatments.

The following are some of the causes for a bone marrow transplant:

Sickle cell anaemia - It is an inherited blood condition that causes red blood cells to be malformed.

Plastic anaemia - It is a condition in which the bone marrow stops producing new blood cells as Cancers that affect the marrow, such as leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma damaged bone marrow due to chemotherapy Congenital neutropenia- It is a hereditary condition that results in recurrent infections.

Thalassemia - It is an inherited blood disorder in which the body produces an abnormal form of haemoglobin, which is an important component of red blood cells.

Bone Marrow Transplant - Pre-Procedure

Several tests will be performed before your transplant to determine the sort of bone marrow cells you require.

Before you acquire new stem cells, your doctor may propose several treatment such as radiation or chemotherapy to eliminate all cancer cells or marrow cells.

Transplanting bone marrow can take up to a week.

Your health care team will explain the transplant process to you and answer all of your questions before you begin treatment.

The pre-transplant period is marked by the determination of the right type of transplant to be performed and, if necessary, the identification of a suitable donor.

Bone Marrow Transplant - During Procedure

Before the actual bone marrow transplant, the patient is given general anaesthesia so that the surgeon can extract the cells quickly and painlessly by putting needles around his or her pelvic bone.

The surgeon will then evaluate the patient's cells to ensure that they are clean and healthy before preserving them till the transplant.

You'll have the transplant, which is similar to a blood transfusion when your doctor feels you're ready.

Bone marrow cells from the donor will be extracted a day or two before the procedure if the patient is having an allogeneic transplant.

If the patient's cells are needed, the stem cell bank will be contacted.

There are two methods for collecting cells:

A needle will be used to retrieve cells from both hipbones during a bone marrow harvest.

For this operation, the patient will be given anaesthesia, which means he or she will be asleep and pain-free.

From the time the stem cells enter the body and reach the bone marrow to begin creating healthy cells, the complete BMT operation takes about 3 to 4 hours.

Engraftment is the term for this procedure.

Bone Marrow Transplant - Post-Procedure

A bone marrow transplant's success rate is largely determined by how closely the donor and recipient are genetically related, and finding a suitable match among unrelated donors might be challenging in some situations.

Your doctor will frequently monitor the state of engraftment after the treatment is completed.

After the initial transplant, it usually takes 10 to 28 days to complete.

An increasing white blood cell count is the first indicator of engraftment.

This will inform the patient that the transplant has begun to produce new blood cells.

This treatment usually takes three months to recover from.

However, it could take up to a year for you to fully recover.

Bone Marrow Transplant - Risk & Complications

Many complications are involved in Bone marrow transplant because only a small amount of the bone marrow is removed from the body.

For a few days, the patient may experience stiffness, minor pain, and weakness as a result of the treatment.

Complications might range from mild to severe.

After therapy, you may experience the following main complications:

  • Rashes or blisters
  • Change in appetite
  • Stomach upset
  • Diarrhea
  • Bloating
  • Jaundice
  • Tea-colored urine
  • Blood in your stool

Graft-versus-host disease can develop into a long-term illness in some circumstances.

You might obtain the following in this scenario:

  • Trouble with your breathing
  • Persistent cough
  • Irritation in your sexual organs.
  • Dry eyes
  • Pain in the joints
  • Sores in your mouth