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Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy that develops in the tissues of the anus, the opening at the end of the rectum. Symptoms may include anal bleeding, pain or discomfort, anal itching, and changes in bowel habits. Causes of anal cancer may include infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), anal intercourse, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Treatment options typically include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, tailored to the cancer's stage and location. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for better outcomes and prognosis. Regular screening and lifestyle modifications can help reduce the risk of developing anal cancer.

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About Anal Cancer

Symptoms: Anal blood or discharge, continuous discomfort or pain in the anus, and changes in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea, are common signs of cancer of the anus and should be evaluated immediately.

Causes: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) an infection, particularly types of 16- and 18-year-old responsive intimate partner activity, immune suppression, and smoking are major factors in risk for cancer of the anal cavity.

Treatments: Usually, a multimodal approach is utilized. Options for surgery may be explored, such as more involved operations for advanced cases of cancer or simple excision for cancer that is still in its early stages. Particularly in instances that are locally advanced, chemotherapy plus radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, is frequently used as the main course of treatment. Furthermore, immunotherapy and specific therapy are developing into viable options for treatment that provide more individualized methods of controlling advanced anal cancer and enhance outcomes for patients. Effective management of anal cancer requires both early identification and detailed treatment plans.

Procedure of Anal Cancer

Diagnosis: To establish the existence of anal cancer and ascertain its stage, a comprehensive evaluation comprising a physical examination, imaging tests (such as MRI or CT scans), and a biopsy is performed first.

Multidisciplinary Team Consultation: A group of medical specialists, such as radiation oncologists, surgeons, and medical oncologists, work together to create a customized treatment plan that is suited to each patient's unique requirements.

Surgery: For anal cancer, surgical options include more involved operations such abdominoperineal resection (APR) for larger tumors, or local excision, which eliminates the tumor and a small portion of surrounding tissue.

Chemotherapy: In order to decrease the tumor, kill cancer cells, and lower the chance of recurrence, chemotherapy medications may be given either before or after surgery.

Radiation Therapy: In situations when surgery is not practical or to enhance surgical outcomes, radiation therapy can be used either alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy to specifically target and kill cancer cells.

Targeted therapy: Prescription medications that directly target the molecular pathways of cancer cells can hinder their development and survival while causing the least amount of damage to healthy tissue.

Follow-up Care: Following therapy, routine follow-up consultations are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment, manage any adverse effects, and keep an eye out for recurrences. To enhance the patient's quality of life, rehabilitation and supportive care may also be given.


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