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Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. It refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and can infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often can spread throughout your body. Cancer is a genetic disease which means that, it is caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.

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About Cancer

Changes in a cell's DNA are what create cancer. A cell's DNA is organized into many distinct genes, each of which carries a set of instructions directing the cell's growth and division in addition to specifying what tasks it should carry out. Nearly 10 million fatalities globally in 2020 were caused by cancer, making it one of the major causes of mortality. Age-related increases in the risk of some malignancies are probably the main cause of the sharp rise in cancer incidence. Cancerous tumors have the ability to invade and spread to neighboring tissues, as well as reach far into the body to produce new tumors.

Procedure of Cancer

There are different treatment methods a cancer can be treated as:

  • ·         Primary Treatment
  • ·         Adjuvant Treatment
  • ·         Palliative Treatment

A multidisciplinary approach is usually used to cancer therapy, which can differ based on the patient's unique circumstances, the kind and stage of the disease, and other considerations. Early detection and treatment of cancer cases reduces its mortality. Early detection consists of two parts: screening and early diagnosis.  

The different diagnostic methods include:

  • ·         HPV test (including HPV DNA and mRNA test), as the preferred modality for cervical cancer screening; and
  • ·         Mammography screening for breast cancer for women aged 50–69 residing in settings with strong or relatively strong health systems.

Besides these, multiple treatment methods for cancer are available in the current times and are worldwide accepted.  The main objective is usually to cure cancer or significantly extend life. Enhancing the patient's standard of living is an additional crucial objective. Palliative care during the terminal stages of cancer, along with support for the patient's physical, psychosocial, and spiritual well-being, can help achieve this.  

  • ·    Radiation Therapy: High-energy X-rays or other particles are used in radiation treatment to kill cancer cells. It is applicable both topically and topically (brachytherapy). Radiation therapy can be used as the main treatment in some circumstances, or it can be administered before or after surgery. Targeting and eliminating cancer cells while causing the least amount of harm to healthy tissues is the aim.
  • ·    Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a pharmaceutical treatment that employs potent chemicals to destroy your body's rapidly proliferating cells. Since cancer cells proliferate and expand far more swiftly than most other cells in the body, chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for cancer. There are numerous chemotherapy medications available. Many different types of cancer can be treated with chemotherapy medications, either alone or in combination.
  • ·    Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy functions by enhancing the immune system's capacity to identify and combat cancerous cells. It covers a range of strategies, including cancer vaccines, CAR-T cell therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Particularly for melanoma, lung cancer, and kidney cancer, immunotherapy has demonstrated encouraging outcomes in the treatment of select cancers.
  • ·    Targeted Therapy: Drugs that precisely target cancer cells due to their distinct traits or genetic alterations are used in targeted therapy. Certain medications disrupt particular molecules implicated in the development and spread of cancer. One can utilize targeted therapies in conjunction with another therapy or as a stand-alone treatment.
  • ·     Palliative Care: Palliative care is a medical intervention designed to enhance the quality of life for cancer patients and their families by reducing symptoms and alleviating suffering, as opposed to curing the disease. People can live more comfortably with the aid of palliative care. It is especially important in areas where a large percentage of patients have advanced cancer stages with little possibility of recovery.

Additionally, several prevention tips are associated with cancer. Tips involve avoiding smoking, eating a healthy diet, drinking alcohol in moderation or completely avoiding alcohol, scheduling career screening programs, avoiding excessive sun exposure, and more.

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