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Head and Neck Cancer

Cancers of the head and neck region, encompassing the oral cavity, mouth, the larynx sinuses, and salivary glands, are commonly referred to as cancers of the head and neck. A chronic painful throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness or changes in voice, lumps or swelling in the neck area are potential symptoms. Use of tobacco and alcohol products, infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), and extended exposure to sunlight are indicators of risk. Surgical procedures, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, specific therapy, and immunotherapy are among the options for treatment that may be available, depending on the location as well as the stage of the cancer. Improving results and maintaining a quality of life depend heavily on early detection and timely treatment.

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About Head and Neck Cancer

Symptoms: Symptoms of cancer of the head and neck can include a lump or sore in the throat, mouth, or neck that does not heal, swallowing difficulties, and a chronic painful neck.

Causes: Using both alcohol and tobacco, especially together, is the main cause of cancer of the head and neck. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, inadequate dental hygiene, and exposure to particular chemicals or asbestos are other risk factors.

Treatment options: Surgery, therapy with radiation, and chemotherapy are all frequently utilized in conjunction for treatment of cancer of the head and neck. In order to more effectively target cells that are cancerous or strengthen the body's immune reaction against the malignancy, specific treatment and immunotherapy may also be used. Improving prognosis for individuals with cancer of the head and neck requires early detection and careful preparation of the entire course of treatments.

Procedure of Head and Neck Cancer

Diagnosis: A comprehensive medical history and physical examination, with special attention to the head and neck region, are the first steps in the process. To verify the diagnosis and ascertain the full extent of the cancer, diagnostic procedures such imaging investigations (CT scan, MRI), biopsies, and even endoscopies are carried out.

Preoperative Assessment: Prior to beginning therapy, patients go through a thorough assessment to determine whether they are healthy enough for surgery or other treatments. Blood tests, imaging investigations, lung function tests, and dental examinations could all be part of this.

anesthetic: The patient receives anesthetic on the day of the procedure in order to make sure they are comfortable and pain-free. The particular surgical technique and the patient's health will determine which kind of anesthetic is used: local or general.

Surgical Approach: The location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as the involvement of surrounding structures, all influence the surgical strategy for head and neck cancer. Reconstructive surgery, neck dissection, and tumor resection are possible surgical treatments.

Tumor Removal: The surgeon carefully eliminates the malignant tissue throughout the procedure, protecting vital systems including blood arteries and surrounding healthy tissue. The tumor's size, location, and chance of recurrence all influence how much tissue is removed.

Reconstruction: After removing the tumor, reconstructive surgery may be needed to restore appearance and function, especially if there has been a large amount of tissue loss. Techniques including skin grafting, local tissue flaps, and microvascular free tissue transfer may be used in this.

Postoperative Care: Following surgery, patients in the recovery room are constantly watched for any indications of complications, including bleeding, infection, or damage to nerves. On-demand treatment may include wound care, pain management, and rehabilitation. Postoperative instructions are given to patients, which include limitations on their diet and activities as well as follow-up sessions for monitoring and adjuvant treatment if needed.


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