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Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer develops in the prostate gland, a part of the male reproductive system. It's one of the most common cancers in men, usually developing slowly and confined to the gland initially. Risk factors include age, family history, and race. Early stages might not show symptoms, but as it progresses, symptoms like urinary changes, blood in urine or semen, pain, and erectile dysfunction may occur. It is advised for people whose cancer has not spread. It has neither symptoms nor indicators. Top diagnostic techniques for this therapy include blood testing, rectal examinations, biopsies, and many more. Radical prostatectomy is one of the most used forms of therapy for it. Open or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery can be used to carry it out. It involves a minimum hospital stay of 5-15 days.

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About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer treatment options include active surveillance, surgery (radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam or brachytherapy), hormone therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment depends on factors like cancer stage, grade, and patient health. Active surveillance monitors the cancer without immediate treatment, while surgery and radiation aim to remove or destroy the tumor. Hormone therapy blocks male hormones to slow cancer growth. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy are utilized in advanced stages or when cancer has spread.

Prostate cancer will be diagnosed in about 1 in 8 men at some time in their lives. However, only 1 in 41 of these will die as a result. Currently, the total 5-year survival rate is around 98%. Although it is a frequent kind of cancer in men, prostate cancer is very curable in its early stages. The prostate gland, which is located between the penis and the bladder, is where it starts. Prostate cancer grows at a slow rate over the time, and the risk of treatment side effects may overpower the need for immediate treatment. Various risk factors for this disease include age, genetics, diet, family history and others. Based on the risk factors, it may be advisable for people to start screening at 40.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

Prostate cancer symptoms can vary, especially in the early stages when they might not be noticeable. Here are some common signs and symptoms associated with prostate cancer:

  • Urinary Changes: Difficulty starting or stopping urination, weak or interrupted flow, frequent urination (especially at night), and the feeling of not emptying the bladder entirely.

  • Blood in Urine or Semen: Presence of blood in the urine (hematuria) or semen can be an indication of prostate issues, including cancer.

  • Erectile Dysfunction: Prostate cancer, particularly when advanced, might lead to difficulty in achieving or maintaining erections.

  • Pain: Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area, lower back, hips, or upper thighs might occur, especially if the cancer has spread beyond the prostate.

  • Bone Pain: Advanced prostate cancer that has spread (metastasized) to the bones can cause bone pain, often in the spine, pelvis, or ribs.

Procedure of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer treatment varies based on several factors including the cancer's stage, grade, the patient's overall health, and personal preferences. Treatments can include:

  • Active Surveillance: For early-stage, slow-growing prostate cancers, doctors may suggest active surveillance or watchful waiting. This involves regular monitoring with PSA tests, digital rectal exams, and sometimes biopsies, without immediate Prostate cancer treatment unless the cancer shows signs of progression.

  • Surgery: Radical prostatectomy involves surgically removing the prostate gland. This can be done traditionally or robotically (robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy). Surgery is most effective for localized cancer.

  • Radiation Therapy: High-energy rays are used to kill cancer cells. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (internal radiation) are common types. Radiation therapy may be used as the primary Prostate cancer treatment or after surgery if there's a risk of cancer recurrence.

  • Hormone Therapy: Prostate cancer cells often rely on male hormones (androgens) to grow. Hormone therapy (androgen deprivation therapy) aims to block or reduce the production of these hormones to slow cancer growth or shrink the tumor.

  • Chemotherapy: Usually employed in advanced stages when cancer has spread beyond the prostate. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells.

  • Immunotherapy: This Prostate cancer treatment stimulates the body's immune system to fight cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs like sipuleucel-T might be used in certain cases.

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